The role of psychology in curriculum implementation and evaluation process.

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Psychology is a science of behaviour or a scientific study of the behavioural activities and experiences. The main emphasis is on the term ‘behaviour’ whose scientific study or investigation is clearly aimed trough the theoretical and practical activities to be organized under psychology. Mangal (2011:3)

Curriculum is asset of planned activities that has to be attained by a leaner in a course of learning. It involves of set activities to be accomplished.

Curriculum implementation is the process of enacting the planned curriculum or is the translation of a written curriculum into class practice. Marsh (2003). Therefore in this stage is where the planned curriculum is put into actual use.

Curriculum evaluation is the process of determine to what extent the objectives of the curriculum have been achieved. It can be regarded as broad and continuous effort to inquire into the effects of utilizing education context, and process according to clearly defined goal.

The curriculum developer has to know how student learn and to take into consideration individual, differences when designing a curriculum. Therefore psychological perspectives or schools of thought that have an impact on curriculum. Classified as behaviour, cognitivism, humanism and constructivism.

Psychology plays a great role in curriculum implementation and evaluation process. In curriculum implementation psychologist through their perspectives explained in details but depend on area of specification. Hence we will show each perspective with the role in curriculum implementation and evaluation process.

To start with behavioural perspectives, they argued that behaviour can be conditioned by altering the environment. In other words, by manipulating and giving a certain stimulus, a certain response can be produced. The behaviourist of this perspective are, Ivan Parlov(1849-1936), Edward Thorndike (1874-1949), Fredrick skinner(1900-1980). The following are the role of psychology in curriculum implementation and evaluation.

They emphasis on practice, behaviourists believed that learner can understand very well after practice they student will understand and grasp well the content in teaching and learning process. For stance Thorndike (1849-1936) through his “law of exercise” explained that student should practice several times and will be weakened when practice is discontinued. Therefore practice is very important in curriculum implementation and evaluation because it enable students to perform effectively in the whole process of teaching and learning.

They also insist the use of reinforcement/ reward, behaviourist emphasize on the use of rewards to encourage certain behaviours in learning process and establish a contact with students on the wok to be done and what rewards will be given as proposed by Fredrick skinner(1900-1980) through his theory based on the idea of reinforcement. He introduced the term operant which means to octupon reinforcement is the key element in skinners theory. He proposed reinforcement as only way of motivating student during the implementation of curriculum and evaluation process, reinforcement can be divided into two; that is positive reinforcement which gives the child a feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction. Reinforcement could be anything for stance words like “good work”  “excellent” or certificate. Negative reinforcement is any stimuli that give rise to a response when it is written. Also punishment is administered when we want to reduce the occurrence of a bad behaviour. Hence reinforcement and punishment play great role in curriculum implementation and evaluation.

Behaviourist proposed logical sequence material to enhance understanding. Example a leader should teach a simple concept first before proceeding to more difficult and abstract concepts. In order the student to understand very well teachers should arrange the content according to the level of learning, student of lower level should learn simple concepts before they reach to the higher level; of learning. Therefore when designing curriculum you should consider logical sequence of materials for effective teaching and learning process.

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Again behaviourists suggest that learning process should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time bound). Behaviourists guide the formulation of educational objectives at macro and micro curriculum level. It is principle that should evaluate whether the learning process is appropriate or not appropriate. Therefore SMART is the best method used in teaching and learning process. The method of teaching should show more practice to make student active.

Apart from behaviourism approach there is also cognitivism approach that show the role of psychologist in curriculum implementation and evaluation process, that has been explained by different scholars (cognivist). Their ideas want to include thinking which is ongoing on the mind of learners; the scholars of this perspective are jean Peaget, Jerome Bruner, Ausebel Gagne. They assumed that individual, have prior knowledge, research in cognitive psychology has been prolific and many theories have been proposed based on empirical evidence. In the implementation and evaluation process cognitivist proposed various ideas to include;

Cognitive insist on bringing to mind relevant prior learning through review previous day’s lesson. The viewed that its necessary curriculum implementation and evaluation process whereby during teaching and learning process a teacher should have a discussion about previously concept content before implementing the new lesson. A part from that after teaching and learning process implanter should evaluate whether the previous knowledge presided by the student or not as well as the new knowledge. Evaluation will enable a teacher to understand what he/she taught was grasped or understood by the student.

Cognovits show students how to use coding when memorizing, recalling on new information, therefore it is critical way in teaching and learning process that helps student to remember easily what they learnt previously. Through make up silly sentence with first letters of each word in the it’s example personal code (MOEVT) (minister of education and vocation training). Also it can be use of mental imagery techniques such as keyword method, through, the formulation of coding, teacher will understand exactly that students thinking capacity has increased because they are able to recall and remember themselves on what they learnt, cognitive emphasize mental participation of the learner example the use of question and answers as well as the composition of grammar.

Behaviourism advocate the avoidance of punishment for unlearning the undesirable behaviour and for shaping the desirable behaviour psychology in curriculum implementation and evaluation influenced very much through the punishment, punishment process ineffective in the long run. It seems that punishment supply suppresses behaviour and when the threat of punishment is removed, behaviour returns to its original. The theory of operant condition under skinner’s suggested rewarding the appropriate behaviour and ignoring the inappropriate behaviour for its gradual extinction. Through rewarding the evaluation of intended behaviour will take place to identify what the learner have or (strong and weakness) of teaching and learning process.

Humanistic theory of learning, the scholars of this theory is Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (psychologist), John Halt (a child education and Malcolm Knowles (Adult Education). Humanism theory of learning lays its own role in curriculum implementation and evaluation process whereby different ideas proposed to be included during the teaching and learning process. The following are ideas of the humanistic theory of learning (Mangal 2011:227-230). The theory suggests that learners’ needs and interests are the bases for selecting curriculum objectives, therefore the following are the ideas of humanistic theory;

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The implementation of the curriculum must be on learners-centred by giving the child a unique position according to his nature. The role of a leader in any process of learning must be that of a good facilitator of knowledge. Therefore participatory and discovery methods should be followed instead of traditional didacticism (Like learn parrot fashion everything leader says). Also, the emphasis on child-centred as easily way evaluating teaching and learning process whereby learners knowledge is observable. The teacher understands exactly what the student they have and how to help them.

Cognitivist encouraged intrinsic motivation, Maslow’s theory of learning shows that  a learner learns better when his learning behaviour is in widely driven and drives his reward from the sense of achievement or satisfaction after getting his one or the other needs satisfied through the outcomes of his learning therefore the satisfaction of his inner self needs. Implemental of curriculum should lies on intrinsic motivation that will encourage student to engage in teaching and learning process not only that but also evaluation to what extent the learning materials achieved will be easily enhanced and more applicable behaviour. Intrinsic motivation driven as important tools in curriculum implementation and evaluation process.

The theory proposed the use of learners interest and needs as the base for selecting curriculum objectives Maslow through his well knows theory oled Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943). According to his theory he explained the satisfaction of needs as follows, first survival needs like food, water air and rest, second safety needs means to be safe and avoid danger , third belongingness and love needs, gain affection of people and need to belong to a group, fourth esteem needs like to be feeling with while and to be recognized, fifth understanding and knowing needs like a desire to know learn and understand things, and sixth self-actualization needs, to develop one’s full potential to fulfil one’s aesthetic needs. Through psychology the implementation of curriculum and evaluation process often during in a excellent way. It means that the satisfaction of individual needs and interest as considered by the theory are very important in teaching and learning process. The evaluation should consider whether the learner’s needs and interest has been achieved or not achieved and to identify the behaviour obtained.

Humanist suggests that model of the leader behaviour and the learning given to the process of implementation and evaluation process whereby the learning environment and the behaviour of the teacher must be quite humane to the children. It should  cater to the satisfaction of children’s basic needs particularly for the children’s basic needs more particularly for children’s affective(or emotion) needs, model will enable the learner to copy exactly, the positive imitation of teacher behaviour will enable the learners to copy the intended behaviour and avoid bad behaviour. The evaluation should consider whether the behaviour imitated is appropriate or inappropriate so that it can be improved.

The constructivism theory of psychology; theory influence curriculum implementation and evaluation process in which child-teacher himself by absorbing information and experiencing the world around her only vast amount of knowledge that would have been acquired by the time the child enters school. The theory based on ideas that learning is the active construction of knowledge also learning is a social activity. The perspective of learning has its origins in the works of Brunner, Piaget and Vygotsky. The following are the role of constructivism theory in curriculum implementation and learning evaluation process.

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Psychologist consider learners are not passure recipient of information but they are active agents in engaging in constructing their own knowledge, in curriculum implementation a teacher should consider learners as active to participate effectively in teaching and learning process whereby should ensure familiarization to enable the student to solve their problem independently, participation method should determine the knowledge of student at the end of the lesson and during the implementation of curriculum it’s one of the way of evaluation what the student have means that students are not tabula rasa. This is done through assimilation means fitting new experience into an existing mental structure accommodation means revising an existing schema because of new experience and equilibrium means seeking cognitive stability through assimilation and accommodation. In other words, learning involves the constructed of new understanding by combining prior learning with new information and learning are constructed on learners mind the knowledge easily to be observable by considering a student in the teaching and learning process.

Constructivism emphasize the consideration of social engagement is a powerful vehicle for enhancing learning, cooperative collaborative and group investigation methods that allow students to discuss ideas, beliefs conceptions, inconsistencies and misconceptions with their peers and teachers. In curriculum implementation and evaluation, process constructivist wants students to learn how to learn together, engage in serious discussion examine important topics and find the answer to difficult questions, constructivist insist learners to interact together so that they can share ideas and solve different challenges as a curriculum implementation demand. The evaluation takes place after the discussion on what they shared. The agreement or ideas of discussions will determine the performance of the learners.

Constructivism emphasizes high level of thinking. Psychology during the implementation of curriculum encouraged a high level of thinking teachers should challenge students to make connections, analyze, and predict. Justify and defend their ideas as well their way in which teachers ask questions will influence student responses. Teachers ask open-ended question and allow for meaningful learning. This will enable the student to be very active as a result of the high performance of the behaviour. The evaluation takes over the degree of learning that achieved in a certain period of time or within a single period.

Constructivism wants the student to engage in an experience that challenge hypothesis and encourage discussion in the implementation of curriculum and evaluation process. The implementation of the curriculum provides opportunities to students to test their hypothesis through dialogue, student generates varying hypothesis about phenomena as well as the class use raw data, primary sources, manipulative, physical and interactive materials. This will enable student to involve in real world situations. Therefore the effective tests of hypothesis determine/ evaluate typical performance of intended behaviour. Thus evaluation shows the general performances of hypothesis.

Although psychology played a great role in curriculum implementation and evaluation process also philosophers and other stakeholders like parents, subject specialist and students plays a great role in curriculum implementation and evaluation process so also achieve education goods and objectives of learning and teaching process.

 

REFERENCES

Carl, A. (2009). Empowerment through Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice,

     3rd.Capetown: Academic press.

Sharme.P. (2009). Curriculum Development. Davy Ganj; New Delhi.

Mangal, S.K.(2011). Essential of Education Psychology. New Delhi: PHI learning private Ltd.

Marsh, J. & Vills, G. (2003). A curriculum: Alternative  Approaches ongoing  issues, 3rd Ed.                                                          New Baskervile: Carlisle Communication Ltd.

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